Wednesday, 30 March 2016

An explorative essay: Can magnesium chloride raise seizure threshold?



Exploiting ionic changes in the epileptic brain to increase seizure threshold with oral supplementation of magnesium chloride

Epilepsy is a serious neurological disorder marked by sudden recurrent episodes of sensory disturbance, loss of consciousness, or convulsions, associated with abnormal electrical activity in the brain. Seizures are associated with neuronal ionic changes (Schwartzkroin, 1998) that can be managed with increased efficacy through magnesium chloride supplementation. Magnesium supplementation should be part of an essential component of a management strategy for any type of epilepsy to raise seizure threshold and maintain trace element homeostasis.

The form of magnesium that has been used most clinically and has the longest therapeutic use to treat epilepsy in the literature is magnesium sulphate, however this is not practical or convenient for patients with epilepsy. While there needs to be more research into other forms of magnesium to manage epilepsy, there remains adequate evidence to suggest that oral magnesium, particularly magnesium chloride, has numerous benefits to increase seizure threshold by modulating neuronal activity. Magnesium chloride is easy to ingest, convenient to apply, acts effectively as a central nervous system depressant, improves insulin sensitivity, and lowers plasma blood glucose. This essay will explain how these mechanisms can effectively contribute towards raising seizure threshold for patients with all types of epilepsy.

‘Non-synaptic mechanisms’ are an important consideration in an attempt to manage neuronal activity in epilepsy. This includes, but is not exclusive to ionic interactions that involve magnesium, potassium, sodium and calcium. Increases in the extracellular concentration of potassium in particular is of vital importance in order to consistently manage epileptic seizures however this is dependent on many cofactors.

Magnesium is involved with over 300 enzymatic reactions and has numerous mechanisms of action that make it an effective standalone treatment to modulate neuronal excitability with great efficacy and safety. ‘Regulation of ionic balance is a critical process that involves a complex array of molecules for moving ions into and out of brain cells-both neurons and glia’ (Schwartzkroin, 1998). Studies show that concentrations of copper, magnesium, and zinc are typically altered in the epileptic brain, particularly in those who receive anti-epileptic drugs (Saghazadeh et al., 2015) and this decreases seizure threshold. Anti-epileptic drugs will also contribute to a number of other imbalances such as vitamin D deficiency (Ali et al., 2004) that can trigger breakthrough seizures through disruption of trace element homeostasis which would require patients to increase medication as a result. Vitamin D deficiency in itself disrupts natural homeostatic mechanisms of calcium which can be managed not only through vitamin D supplementation (Teargarden, Meador and Loring, 2014) but also magnesium supplementation (Levine and Coburn, 1984).

Long term use of AEDs can result in micronutrient deficiencies
that could actually lower seizure threshold, resulting in need for
more medication in an attempt to mitigate these undesirable side effects.
The imbalance caused by these ionic changes in the epileptic brain, and influenced even more with anti epileptic drugs, can result in breakthrough seizures and a subsequent increase in medication as a questionable attempt to resolve the issue. Doctors have been accused of being unaware of these associative deficiencies, with less than 10% of neurologists recommending patients to take calcium and vitamin D to protect against the side effects of these drugs (Pack, 2008). The result would be an increase of their typical undesirable sedative side effects, bone mineral loss and possible further deficiencies. Certain drugs, such as Lamotrogine, do not possess sedating effects, but can disrupt circadian rhythm regulation mechanisms causing possible breakthrough seizures by inadequate functioning of melatonin from the pineal gland (Nzwalo et al., 2016, Quigg et al., 2016). The rhythmicity of these seizures are often associated with bimodal peaks of occurrence, particularly attributed to focal epilepsies, and specifically observed in temporal lobe epilepsy (Nzwalo et al., 2016), can potentially be mitigated via targeted therapeutic dose of oral magnesium chloride before seizure activity occurs.
  
Potassium, sodium, and calcium ratios are also important considerations as has been established in the literature over many years (Heinemann et al, 1986), however achieving adequate magnesium status is likely a greater challenge as our diets are likely deficient and there are numerous mechanisms of actions that will interact beneficially with these other elements that can be more easily attained through diet.

'A slow potassium current (IsAHP) activated by the influx of calcium into the pyramidal neurons, plays a key role in controlling the repetitive firing of neurons throughout the brain.' http://pnbfiles.uconn.edu/PNB_Base/about/staff/facultysites/tasso/research.html 


Magnesium is an abundant mineral in the body serving many biochemical functions and it acts as an essential electrolyte for all living organisms. Magnesium deficiency decreases seizure threshold in human and animal models (Osborn et al, 2015) and studies have repeatedly shown that people with epilepsy have lower magnesium than people without epilepsy. Normal dietary magnesium intake is estimated to be 300–350 mg per day for adults but intake is still too low even amongst the general ‘healthy’ population. To make matters worse, hypomagnesia is associated with epilepsy (Capellarri, 2016, de Baaij, 2015) and a wide range of medical conditions. As a result, it is not a surprise that magnesium supplementation has been shown to be beneficial in the treatment of many neurological conditions in particular, including preeclampsia, migraine, and depression (Jeroen et al, 2015)

It is clear that magnesium supplementation is essential for most people at present and moreso for those with any type of epilepsy. As with most neurological conditions, a compromised blood brain barrier will increase the need for magnesium. It has also been shown in a number of cases to be more effective than medication alone and it may be possible to replace standard medication completely if trace element homeostasis is achieved for drug resistant epilepsy (Yuen and Sander, 2012,  Abdelmalik, Politzer and Carlen, 2012, Mason et al, 1994).
A compromised blood brain barrier, associated with many conditions of the brain, results in a greaterdemand for magnesium to maintain trace element homeostasis http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fncel.2014.00232/full

Magnesium comes in many forms as it needs to be bound to certain molecules for optimal ingestion so that it can get to the brain and central nervous system. Effectiveness for the therapeutic use required depends on bioavailability and desired response. Magnesium citrate, for example, has proven to be a very effective laxative, but may not be the most efficacious from for seizure management due to poor bioavailability and less taken up by the CNS.

It is interesting how magnesium citrate may not help manage seizure activity effectively (and could even trigger seizures-possibly due to poor absorption). Perhaps surprisingly, magnesium citrate should probably be avoided for most as it interferes with ceruloplasmin and can cause iron dysregulation as well as other health issues. The reason this form is worth mentioning as it is commonly used for children on strict ketogenic diets to manage constipation as magnesium citrate has a laxative effect. Magnesium chloride can cause patients to retain water, however potassium citrate, which is often used by patients on ketogenic diets to alkalise the urine for kidney health, can help to release these fluids and relieve this discomfort.

It is important to consider the mechanisms of action for magnesium. Seizures occur when the central nervous system becomes overstimulated. Magnesium can act as an effective CNS depressant, with numerous beneficial functions intracellularly and extracellularly to supress seizure activity to modulate neuronal excitability. The primary mechanism is most likely its ability to antagonize excitation through the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (Yuen and Sander, 2012).
'The primary mechanism is most likely its ability to
antagonize excitation through the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor'
IMG- 
http://webvision.med.utah.edu/book/part-v-phototransduction-in-rods-and-cones/glutamate-and-glutamate-receptors-in-the-vertebrate-retina/

Most of the research regarding epilepsy comes from numerous studies on eclampsia (Berhan and Berhan, 2015) with some detailing treatment for status epilepticus (Tan et al, 2015). ‘Eclampsia is defined as de novo seizure in a woman with the hypertensive complication of pregnancy known as preeclampsia (PE), and is a leading cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality worldwide.’ (Johnson, 2015)
Magnesium Sulphate has been in clinical use for almost a centrury
to treat epileptic seizures in women with pre-eclampsia.
 

Any kind of epilepsy results in a compromised blood brain barrier (Oby and Janigro, 2006). Like preeclampsia, neuroinflammation and a compromised blood brain barrier permeability (Johnson, 2015) increase the need for magnesium (‘leaky brain’) so a favourable response is gained from supplementation, reversing seizure activity. We know for example, that inflammatory molecules contribute to neuronal hyperexcitability (Lori, Frigerio and Vezzani, 2016) which would naturally decrease seizure threshold dramatically. Keeping blood glucose low is neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory, magnesium can do this effectively.

Similar to the ketogenic diet, magnesium has had nearly a century of clinical use to treat epilepsy. It been used as prophylaxis and treatment of seizures associated with eclampsia however because of the availability of well studied anticonvulsant drugs it has not been tested widely in the treatment of epileptic seizures (Abdelmalik, Politzer and Carlen, 2012, Mason et al, 1994). As with the ketogenic diet, oral magnesium acts as a natural statin to reduce seizure threshold and keeps blood glucose low. (Guerrero-Romero et al, 2015) It is absolutely crucial to keep blood glucose consistent as hyperglycaemia has been shown to lower seizure threshold (Stafstrom, 2008).

In conclusion, restoration of specific ionic changes in the epileptic brain with supplementary therapeutic doses of magnesium chloride can be an effective strategy to increase seizure threshold. As a stand-alone therapy, or in combination with manipulation of trace elements and electrolytes and/or anti epileptic medications patients can attain improved seizure control through trace element homeostasis. It remains unclear whether these ions are causal to, or a cofactor in the development of epilepsy, however it has been demonstrated that seizure control can be maintained through ‘non synaptic mechanisms’, with magnesium being a key element with numerous mechanisms of action.  

Studies on magnesium chloride have demonstrated that it can be a convenient, efficacious supplemental therapeutic aid to increase seizure threshold. Magnesium chloride has shown to ingest efficiently due to its composition and its bioavailability is favourable. Taken orally it can assist in maintaining trace element homeostasis to either complement or replace drugs which can cause numerous trace element deficiencies. It is convenient and possibly the most efficient form of magnesium for ingestion as minerals need to be dissolved in gastric acid to go into the solution. Magnesium chloride has extra chloride molecules to produce hydrochloric acid in the stomach which enhances its absorption. It is pertinent to note that interaction with other trace elements needs to be taken into account however supplementation with magnesium chloride could provide patients with the most effective method on its own to better prevent neuronal hyperexcitability through its many promising mechanisms of action.














References

Abdelmalik, P. A., Politzer, N. and Carlen, P.L. (2012). Magnesium as an effective adjunct therapy for drug resistant seizures. The Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. 39(3):323-7. Available from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22547512 [Accessed 02 February 2016]

Ali, F. E. et al. (2004). Loss of Seizure Control Due to Anticonvulsant-Induced Hypocalcemia. The Annals of Pharmacotherapy, 38(6):1002-5. Available from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15084684 [Accessed 08 February 2016]

Berhan, Y. and Berhan, A. (2015). Should magnesium sulfate be administered to women with mild pre-eclampsia? A systematic review of published reports on eclampsia. The Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research, 41(6):831-42. Available from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jog.12697/full [Accessed 04 February 2016]

Cappellari, A. M. (2016). Neonatal focal seizures and hypomagnesemia: A case report. European Journal of Paediatric Neurology, 20(1):176-178. Available from http://www.ejpn-journal.com/article/S1090-3798(15)00179-8/abstract [Accessed 05 February 2016]

de Baaij, J. H. (2015). The art of magnesium transport. Magnesium Research, 28(3):85-91. Available from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26446763 [Accessed 07 February 2016]

Guerrero-Romero, F. et al. (2015). Oral magnesium supplementation improves glycaemic status in subjects with prediabetes and hypomagnesaemia: A double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial. Diabetes and Metabolism. 41(3):202-7. Available from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/275589606_Oral_magnesium_supplementation_improves_glycaemic_status_in_subjects_with_prediabetes_and_hypomagnesaemia_A_double-blind_placebo-controlled_randomized_trial [Accessed 04 February 2016]

 

Heinemann, U. et al. (1986). Extracellular calcium and potassium concentration changes in chronic epileptic brain tissue. Advances in Neurology, 44:641-61. Available from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3518350 [Accessed 04 February 2016]

Levine, B. S. and Coburn J. W. (1984). Magnesium, the Mimic/Antagonist of Calcium. The New England Journal of Medicine, 310:1253-1255. Available from http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJM198405103101910 [Accessed 08 February 2016]

 

 

Lori, V., Frigerio, F. and Vezzani, A. (2016). Modulation of neuronal excitability by immune mediators in epilepsy. Current Opinion in Pharmacology, 26:118-23. Available from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26629681 [Accessed 06 February 2016]


Saghazadeh, A. et al. (2015) Possible role of trace elements in epilepsy and febrile seizures: a meta-analysis. Nutrition Reviews, 73(11):760-779. Available from http://nutritionreviews.oxfordjournals.org/content/73/11/760.abstract [Accessed 07 February 2016]

Jeroen H. F. et al. (2015). Magnesium in Man: Implications for Health and Disease. 95(1):1-46. Available from http://physrev.physiology.org/content/95/1/1 [Accessed 02 February 2016]

Johnson, A. C. (2015) Mechanisms of Seizure during Pregnancy and Preeclampsia. Graduate College Dissertations and Theses. Paper 336. Available from http://scholarworks.uvm.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1335&context=graddis [Accessed 04 February 2016]

Mason, B. A. et al. (1994). Magnesium is more efficacious than phenytoin in reducing N-methyl-D-aspartate seizures in rats. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research, 171(4):999-1002. Available from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/15256355_Magnesium_is_more_efficacious_than_phenytoin_in_reducing_N-methyl-D-aspartate_seizures_in_rats_Am_J_Obstet_Gynecol [Accessed 04 February 2016]

Nzwalo, H. et al. (2016). 24- hour rhythmicity of seizures in refractory focal epilepsy. Epilepsy and Behaviour, 55: 75-78. Available from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1525505015006605 [Accessed 20 March 2016]

Oby, E. and Janigro, D. (2006). The blood-brain barrier and epilepsy. Epilepsia, 47(11):1761-74. Available from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17116015 [Accessed 04 February 2016]

Osborn, K. E. et al. (2015). Addressing potential role of magnesium dyshomeostasis to improve treatment efficacy for epilepsy: a reexamination of the literature. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 56(3):260-5. Available from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jcph.626/full [Accessed 07 February 2016]

Pack, A. (2008). Bone health in people with epilepsy: Is it impaired and what are the risk factors?. Seizure, 17(2):181-6. Available from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18187347 [Accessed 04 February 2016]

Quigg, M. et al. (2016). Insomnia in epilepsy is associated with continuing seizures and worse quality of life. Epilepsy Research, Available from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0920121116300328 [Accessed 20 March 2016]

Rodríguez-Morán, M. and Guerrero-Romero, F. (2003). Oral magnesium supplementation improves insulin sensitivity and metabolic control in type 2 diabetic subjects: a randomized double-blind controlled trial. Diabetes Care, 26(4),1147-52. Available from http://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/26/4/1147.full [Accessed 04 February 2016]

Saghazadeh, A. et al. (2015). Possible role of trace elements in epilepsy and febrile seizures: a meta-analysis. Nutrition Reviews, 73(11):760-79. Available from http://nutritionreviews.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2015/10/02/nutrit.nuv026 [Accessed 04 February 2016]

Schwartzkroin, P. A., Baraban, S. C. and Hochman, D. W. (1998). Osmolarity, ionic flux, and changes in brain excitability. Epilepsy Research, 32(1-2):275-285. Available from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0920121198000588 [Accessed 09 February 2016]

Stafstrom, C. E. (2008). Hyperglycemia Lowers Seizure Threshold. Seizure, 17(2):181-6. Available from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC387262/ [Accessed 07 February 2016]

Tan, W. W. et al. (2015). Use of Magnesium Sulfate Infusion for the Management of Febrile Illness-Related Epilepsy Syndrome A Case Series. Child Neurology Open, January - March 2015: 1-5. Available from http://cno.sagepub.com/content/2/1/2329048X14550067.full.pdf [Accessed 04 February 2016]
Teargarden, D. L., Meador, K. J. and Loring, D. W. (2014). Low vitamin D levels are common in patients with epilepsy. Epilepsy Research, 108(8):1352-6. Available from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25060996 [Accessed 04 February 2016]


Yuen, A. W. and Sander, J. W. (2012). Can magnesium supplementation reduce seizures in people with epilepsy? A hypothesis. Epilepsy Research. 100(1-2):152-6. Available from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22406257 [Accessed 02 February 2016] 

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  7. Essay writing is really very hard for students and many students are really stressed to write it. So finding a best essay writing format is not easy. Anyway you can check any essay writing services and they can help you to find a good format to write the essay. I can recommend a site that has helped me. It's called Evolution Writers Good luck!

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  8. With a great joy and fullness of happiness i my heart, i want to thank a powerful spell caster called Dr. Peace, I am from USA, before now i thought i have lost my husband for good after just 2 years of our marriage, We had a fight because he thought that i was cheating on him with my childhood friend and nothing like that happen. He was been deceived by my own very good friend who was having crush on him just to make him hers. Which she really succeeded till now, i tried my possible best to make him know the real truth that i was not cheating but he was already fed up because of the lies rendered against me by my own friend, from their i was searching for help because he was my life and without him i could hurt myself. I contacted three fake spell caster that drained me of my money before i came across Dr. Peace, who finally cast a spell on my husband that made him realize that i was not cheating on him, He came back begging me for forgiveness and that was how we came back and now he love me more than before, anything i tell him now is what he does, Thanks to the great and powerful Dr. Peace for restoring joy, happiness to my home again. If you need help, contact him on his email genuinelovespellhelper@gmail.com or genuinelovespellhelper@yahoo.com You can call his personal phone number +12708406308 and his website address is http://genuinelovespellhe.wixsite.com/genuinelovespell





    With a great joy and fullness of happiness i my heart, i want to thank a powerful spell caster called Dr. Peace, I am from USA, before now i thought i have lost my husband for good after just 2 years of our marriage, We had a fight because he thought that i was cheating on him with my childhood friend and nothing like that happen. He was been deceived by my own very good friend who was having crush on him just to make him hers. Which she really succeeded till now, i tried my possible best to make him know the real truth that i was not cheating but he was already fed up because of the lies rendered against me by my own friend, from their i was searching for help because he was my life and without him i could hurt myself. I contacted three fake spell caster that drained me of my money before i came across Dr. Peace, who finally cast a spell on my husband that made him realize that i was not cheating on him, He came back begging me for forgiveness and that was how we came back and now he love me more than before, anything i tell him now is what he does, Thanks to the great and powerful Dr. Peace for restoring joy, happiness to my home again. If you need help, contact him on his email genuinelovespellhelper@gmail.com or genuinelovespellhelper@yahoo.com You can call his personal phone number +12708406308 and his website address is http://genuinelovespellhe.wixsite.com/genuinelovespell

    ReplyDelete
  9. With a great joy and fullness of happiness i my heart, i want to thank a powerful spell caster called Dr. Peace, I am from USA, before now i thought i have lost my husband for good after just 2 years of our marriage, We had a fight because he thought that i was cheating on him with my childhood friend and nothing like that happen. He was been deceived by my own very good friend who was having crush on him just to make him hers. Which she really succeeded till now, i tried my possible best to make him know the real truth that i was not cheating but he was already fed up because of the lies rendered against me by my own friend, from their i was searching for help because he was my life and without him i could hurt myself. I contacted three fake spell caster that drained me of my money before i came across Dr. Peace, who finally cast a spell on my husband that made him realize that i was not cheating on him, He came back begging me for forgiveness and that was how we came back and now he love me more than before, anything i tell him now is what he does, Thanks to the great and powerful Dr. Peace for restoring joy, happiness to my home again. If you need help, contact him on his email genuinelovespellhelper@gmail.com or genuinelovespellhelper@yahoo.com and his website address is http://genuinelovespellhe.wixsite.com/genuinelovespell

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  10. Hello everyone, please don't ignore this wonderful testimony on how my marriage was brought back to life by Professor Rojo Spiritual Magical Spell. I had been living in great bondage for the past 4 years suffering in the hands of a cheating husband. We were living happily until he meant his old time girl friend and he started dating her again outside our marriage and before i knew it he stopped caring for his own family, to the extent that he was planning to marry her and divorce me. I came across Professor Rojo contact email (rojospiritualtemple@gmail.com & rojospiritualtemple@hotmail.com) through a testimony shared by a lady he has helped with similar marriage problem and i contacted him by telling him everything i am experiencing in my matrimonial home and he agreed to help me and told me never to worry. Professor Rojo did a very miraculous spell/prayer for me and after three day my husband returned back home begging me to forgive him. Please contact him now via email: rojospiritualtemple@gmail.com or rojospiritualtemple@hotmail.com

    NOTE: He also cast spells for different purposes such as..:

    1 Magical Spell for promotion in your place of work.
    2 Spell to overcome bad dreams or nightmare at night.
    3 If you want your Ex-Lover back with immediate effect
    4 Magical Spell to make women / men to run after you.
    5 Magical Spell for fruit of the Womb/fertility
    6 Magical Spell for immediate wealth and riches.
    7 Magical Spell to tie your husband/wife to be yours forever.
    8 Magical Spell to make your business flourish on a daily basis?
    9 Magical Spell for good luck to win lottery irrespective of where you lives?
    10 Professor Rojo can also do good luck spell for you to succeed in all areas of life. You can write professor Rojo through emails: rojospiritualtemple@gmail.com & rojospiritualtemple@hotmail.com

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  11. Wow. I have never used spell before, I never believed on it until now after I got helped by Lord Henry of Permanent Spell Cast. My husband usually cheats on me, and whenever I confronted him about this he would leave the house for some days. This continued for about two years now until I came across an advert online about Permanent Spell Cast. I read more about the Lord Henry and found out that he had helped so many people with same case as mine, so I thought to give him and his spell a try. I contacted the Guru on his email: permanentspellcast@yahoo.com and he got back to me some few hours later.
    I explained my conditions to him and he encouraged me with a promise (that my husband will stop cheating on me and keep me as his only love for life) which he kept. Am so happy now that just some 3 days of using Lord Henry Stop Cheating Spell which I got from him, my husband stopped cheating on me, he now have all the time for me and my kids, he no longer get drunk and he has shunned all interactions with other ladies. Am so happy and I want to use this medium to say a BIG thanks to Lord Henry for his help. You can as well get to the Spell Legend on permanentspellcast@gmail.com permanentspellcast@yahoo.com and permanentspellcast@hotmail.com

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  12. A GREAT SPELL CASTER THAT HELP ME BRING BACK MY EX HUSBAND.
    With a great joy and fullness of happiness i my heart, i want to thank a powerful spell caster called Dr. Peace, I am from USA, before now i thought i have lost my husband for good after just 2 years of our marriage, We had a fight because he thought that i was cheating on him with my childhood friend and nothing like that happen. He was been deceived by my own very good friend who was having crush on him just to make him hers. Which she really succeeded till now, i tried my possible best to make him know the real truth that i was not cheating but he was already fed up because of the lies rendered against me by my own friend, from their i was searching for help because he was my life and without him i could hurt myself. I contacted three fake spell caster that drained me of my money before i came across Dr. Peace, who finally cast a spell on my husband that made him realize that i was not cheating on him, He came back begging me for forgiveness and that was how we came back and now he love me more than before, anything i tell him now is what he does, Thanks to the great and powerful Dr. Peace for restoring joy, happiness to my home again. If you need help, contact him on his email genuinelovespellhelper@gmail.com or genuinelovespellhelper@yahoo.com and his website address is http://genuinelovespellhe.wixsite.com/genuinelovespell

    ReplyDelete

  13. How my son survived epilepsy.
    My son at the age of 13 suffered from terrible seizures as a result of the terrible condition called epilepsy and this was very humiliating and life threatening because he was continuously on life support drugs and medicines but none seemed to cure all they did was revive him and the seizure kept coming to him this lasted for 8 more years. The last time he had seizure in may last year i was called where i worked that my son had a terrible seizure, he was also revived from that but that day i wept. I was fortunate enough to explain my ordeal to a friend who invited Dr. Joseph who came and started treating my son with his medicine at our house for two months and in 3 months the seizure never happened again they were gone and even up till now he is very fine without any epileptic symptoms. Today he 22 and i believe he has been cured. Epilepsy has a cure simply try to reach the doctor on (josephalberteo@gmail.com) for more information about his treatment process or how to get his medicine. Do not give up on yourself, i hope my son's story motivates you.

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  14. I Want to tell the world about a great man called Dr.Agbazara of AGBAZARA TEMPLE for bringing joy into my marriage after 2years of divorce from my husband and my 4kids, i have don everything to bring them back to my life because i love them so much so a friend introduced me to a spell caster last month who did every thing spiritually and bring them back within 48hours, now we are together and happy even more than we where before. You can contact this great spell caster to solve your own relationship problems via email like i did on: ( agbazara@gmail.com ) OR Whatsapp +2348104102662

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  15. How my daughter was saved from grand mal seizure.
    I am not really a fan of sharing my personal private story on the internet but i decided to do this because this joy is too voluminous for me to hide. My daughter which i took over 8 years after marriage to conceive had her first seizure at age 8 and ever since then it has been from one seizure to another in school, in church, at picnics. This got me worried because she has a bright future that i do not want epilepsy to become a hindrance, i tried several doctors in Texas and none could help with an effective cure. I went on the internet and saw testimonies about a treatment for epilepsy which a doctor offered and i was interested, i got in contact with him and i was able to get the medicine for my daughter which she used for 3 months as he instructed and it has been over 6 months now she is doing just fine without any allergies or aftermath effects. If you are suffering problem try to reach him too on (josephalberteo@gmail.com) i can count on him for a cure for you too.

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  16. I was having serious relationship problems with my boyfriend and it had resulted in him moving out to his friend’s apartment. Everything got worse because he started going to bars and strip clubs frequently with his friend, getting drunk and passing out. He always threatens me on phone whenever I call him because of all the bad advises that his friend has given him. I really love him and we had been dating for 6 years which gave us a beautiful daughter. I had also lost a lot of money on therapists until I was introduced to Dr JATTO by a friend whom he helped to marry her childhood boyfriend; this gave me total confidence and strength to get him back. I did all he asked and after 24 hours my boyfriend called me and rushed back home, things just changed between us emotionally. He has a job and stopped drinking and keeping irrelevant friends. It’s a miracle I never believed it was possible because I had lost all hope until I found Dr JATTO. So that’s why I promised to share my testimony all over the universe. All thanks goes to Dr JATTO for the excessive work that he has done for me Contact him his Email: drjattolovespellteple@gmail.com or drjattolovespelltemple@yahoo.co.uk or call him on his mobile:+2347050270268 or contact him though his website: http://drjattolovespellte.wixsite.com/spelltemp...

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  17. My name is Jennifer am from uk I am out here to spread this good news to the entire world on how I got my husband back.I was going crazy when my husband left me and my two kids for another woman last month, But when i met a friend that introduced me to Dr Osuko of temple of grace, the great messenger to the oracle. I narrated my problem to him about how my Husband left me and my two kids.He only said to me that i have come to the right place were i will be getting my heart desire without any delay .He told me what i need to do,After it was been done 3 day later,My Husband called me on the phone and was saying sorry for living me and the kids before now and one week after my Husband called me to be pleading for forgiveness.I am so happy and overwhelmed that i have to tell this to the entire world to contact Dr Osuko on his personal email address and get all your problem solved.No problem is too big for him to solve..Contact him directly on: osukospelltemple@gmail.com and your problem will be solved.can email him on his email address: osukospelltemple@gmail.com

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  18. I want to express myself to the world and tell them about the great thing that Dr.Ogudugu whose contact details are +2348142250751, greatogudugu@gmail.com or http://greatdrogudugusolutiontemple.webs.com/, Dr.Ogudugu was the great man that brought back my lover to me within the period of 48hours and the amazing thing was that Dr.Ogudugu never asked me for anything in return i only paid for the items he used in casting the spell and that was all. As i am writing now my lover is still with me treating me with care and showing me so much love thanks to Dr.Ogudugu. My name is Ana and i am from Los Angeles in USA.

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  19. I feel so blessed again in my marriage after Doctor Oku brought back my husband that separated with me for good 3 mounths. Am Jessica Butler by name from USA. Even though i have mouths all over my body, it won't be enough to thank Doctor Oku for his help upon my life. My husband separated with me for the 3 months and have been in pains and agony without him. So, i searched for help everywhere but nothing worked out not until i meant Doctor Oku who i contacted online. I explained my situation to him and he promised that my husband will get back to me within 24 to 48 hours as far that my heart still beats for him. I believed in him and he prepared a spell for me and my husband called me exactly when Doctor Oku said. He pleaded and said he needs me back and now we are living happily again for the past 9 months. Everyone out there reading my article that needs help should contact him... Email: okutemple@gmail.com or call +2347053113465

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  20. Read Up My Story Today as my story is a very special and unique one as is not like the numerous advert you always see online and also I want to be 100% sincere and truthful to you that there can never be any other online spell caster that can help you bring back your EX BACK to you other than DR OTIS DARKO as he alone is 100% effective,dynamic and very reliable as 99.9% of other spell casters are not for real and can never help you solve your problems at all instead they will complicate your present condition OK SO BE WISE AND ALSO BE WARNED AND CONTACT DR OTIS DARKO TODAY... MY OWN LIFE STORY / EXPERIENCES IS BELOW:


    My Name is Alan Pratte, From USA. I wish to share my testimonies with the general public about what this man called Dr OTIS DARKO has just done for me , this man has just brought back my lost Ex WIFE to me with his great spell, I was married to this woman called Sharon we were together for a long time and we loved our self’s but when I was unable to make her pregnant for me and also give her al she needs she left me and told me she can’t continue anymore then I was now looking for ways to get her back until a friend of mine told me about this man and gave his contact email: otisdarko60@yahoo.com then you won't believe this when I contacted this man on my problems he prepared this spell cast and bring my lost WIFE back, and after a month she became pregnant for me because he gave me some herbs to take also and when she went for a test and the result stated that she was pregnant am happy today am a FATHER of a baby girl, thank you once again the great DR OTIS DARKO for what you have done for me, if you are out there passing through any of this problems listed below:

    (1) If you want your ex back.
    (2) if you always have bad dreams.
    (3) You want to be promoted in your office.
    (4) You want women/men to run after you.
    (5) If you want a child/PREGNANCY SPELL.
    (6) You want to be rich.
    (7) You want to tie your husband/wife to be
    yours forever.
    (8) If you need financial assistance.
    (9) How you been scammed and you want to recover you lost money.
    (10)Stop Divorce
    (11) CURE TO ALL KIND OF SICKNESS/DISEASES HERE
    (12) Winning of lottery
    (13) Cure To Hiv/Aids
    (14) LOTTERY/LOTTO SPELL WINNING
    (15) CURE TO HERPES AND ANY OTHER SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES AT ALL...
    (16) HAVE YOU BEEN SCAMMED BEFORE AND NEEDS TO RECOVER ALL THE DOLLARS/MONEY YOU LOST TO THESE FRAUDSTER ???.. CONTACT OTIS DARKO AS HE HELPED MY FRIEND CALLED LEONARD CAPTAIN FROM USA TO RECOVER BACK THE SUM OF $300,000.00 DOLLARS HE LOST TO SCAMMERS ONLINE

    Email... otisdarko60@yahoo.com...... YOU CAN ALSO ADD HIM UP ON WHATSAPP USING THIS MOBILE NUMBER:+2348077526136

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  21. Husbands really need to be careful of other woman outside their marriage,this was a true life story that happened to me to my own notice my sister took my husband from me the Husband whom i have love so much and promise me that no woman will take him from me but all of a sudden things turned apart if not for my friend hear in USA that told me i needed a spell caster that can cast a spell to separate them maybe by now he must have went for a divorce which could have made me commit suicide because i loved him so much likewise like him also but how things turn around was a thing that surprised me.
    I vowed that any thing it could cost me i must separate him and my elder sister i then collected the contact of this spell caster from my friend Mary she told me his name is dr aluda and his email is aludaspelltemple@gmail.com i contacted him and narrated the whole story to him he consulted and found out that my sister visited a spell caster that casted a spell that made him love her i then ask him what to do he told me that this spell needed to be broken so that my husband can leave her alone and come back to me the spell was broken and within three days he began to hate her that he even beat her up before he said to her that it is over between him and her right now my husband is with me again and take good care of me like he have never done before i thank my friend Mary but i own all thanks to dr aluda for bringing back my husband and i therefore for advice that if you notice any strange behavior in your marriage or your boy friend or girlfriend is cheating you contact dr aluda to know the root of it he will surely help you out and give an everlasting solution to it.his email address again is aludaspelltemple@gmail.com or call and whatsapp him on +2348063930531
    Reggie Joan
    Am from usa

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  22. I never believe on love spells until i met a friend of my who told me everything about DR.ehis who brought her ex-boyfriend back, even when she was telling me i did not believe her because i thought that she also wanted the same fake spell casters to take away my money. Although i gave her chance to explain everything she has to tell me about DR.ehis , i said to her that there are many scammers who want to take our money and i will never fall victim on them, even though my fiancee who suppose to marry me in a few months from now left me i will wait patiently for another guy though i loved him so much. she told me that this DR is not a fake one that he is real and he has helped many people to get their loved ones back, then i ask her how does this spell work and what is the requirements that i have to do before he can cast the love spells on me? she told me that i should emailed him on (EHISOJOKU@HOTMAIL.COM)

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